Malayalam Essay On Anti Drugs Day
Paracetamol or acetaminophen are recommended for pain relief and reducing fever until dengue infections are ruled out, as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can increase the risk of bleeding.
malayalam essay on anti drugs day
Be careful about the daily use of over-the-counter pain medications. Regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen and naproxen, can damage your kidneys. Learn more about over-the-counter medicines and your kidneys.
Other genetic mutations may not cause epilepsy, but may influence the disorder in other ways. For example, one study showed that many people with certain forms of epilepsy have an abnormally active version of a gene that results in resistance to anti-seizure drugs. Genes also may control a person's susceptibility to seizures, or seizure threshold, by affecting brain development.
In surveys of people with epilepsy, stress is the most commonly reported seizure trigger. Exposure to toxins or poisons such as lead or carbon monoxide, street drugs, or even excessively large doses of antidepressants or other prescribed medications also can trigger seizures.
Many people with a first seizure will never have a second seizure, and physicians often counsel against starting antiseizure drugs at this point. In some cases where additional epilepsy risk factors are present, drug treatment after the first seizure may help prevent future seizures. Evidence suggests that it may be beneficial to begin antiseizure medication once a person has had a second unprovoked seizure, as the chance of future seizures increases significantly after this occurs. A person with a pre-existing brain problem, for example, a prior stroke or traumatic brain injury, will have a higher risk of experiencing a second seizure. In general, the decision to start antiseizure medication is based on the doctor's assessment of many factors that influence how likely it is that another seizure will occur in that person.
An estimated five to 20 percent of people diagnosed with epilepsy actually have non-epileptic seizures (NES), which can outwardly resemble epileptic seizures, but are not associated with seizure-like electrical discharge in the brain. Non-epileptic events may be referred to as psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES). PNES do not respond to antiseizure drugs; instead, PNES are often treated by cognitive behavioral therapy to decrease stress and improve self-awareness.
An electroencephalogram (EEG) can assess whether there are any detectable abnormalities in the person's brain waves and may help to determine if antiseizure drugs would be of benefit. Video monitoring may be used in conjunction with EEG to determine the nature of a person's seizures and to rule out other disorders such as psychogenic non-epileptic seizures, cardiac arrhythmia, or narcolepsy that may look like epilepsy.
The most common approach to treating the epilepsies is to prescribe antiseizure drugs. More than 20 different antiseizure medications are available today, all with different benefits and side effects. Most seizures can be controlled with one drug (monotherapy). Deciding on which drug to prescribe, and at what dosage, depends on many different factors, including seizure type, lifestyle and age, seizure frequency, drug side effects, medicines for other conditions, and, for a woman, whether she is pregnant or will become pregnant. It may take several months to determine the best drug and dosage. If one treatment is unsuccessful, another may work better.
Most side effects of antiseizure drugs are relatively minor, such as fatigue, dizziness, or weight gain. Antiseizure medications have differing effects on mood: some may worsen depression, where others may improve depression or stabilize mood. However, severe and life-threatening reactions such as allergic reactions or damage to the liver or bone marrow can occur. Antiseizure medications can interact with many other drugs in potentially harmful ways. Some antiseizure drugs can cause the liver to speed the metabolism of other drugs and make the other drugs less effective, as may be the case with oral contraceptives. Since people can become more sensitive to medications as they age, blood levels of medication may need to be checked occasionally to see if dosage adjustments are necessary. The effectiveness of a medication can diminish over time, which can increase the risk of seizures. Some citrus fruit and products, in particular grapefruit juice, may interfere with the breakdown of many drugs, including antiseizure medications, causing them to build up in the body, which can worsen side effects.
Some people with epilepsy may be advised to discontinue their antiseizure drugs after two to three years have passed without a seizure. Others may be advised to wait for four to five years. Discontinuing medication should always be done with supervision of a health care professional. It is very important to continue taking antiseizure medication for as long as it is prescribed. Discontinuing medication too early is one of the major reasons people who have been seizure-free start having new seizures and can lead to status epilepticus. Some evidence also suggests that uncontrolled seizures may trigger changes in the brain that will make it more difficult to treat the seizures in the future.
During the labor and delivery, it is important to take her same formulations and doses of antiseizure drugs at the usual times; it is often helpful to bring medications from home. If a seizure does occur during labor and delivery, intravenous short-acting medications can be given if necessary. It is unusual for the newborns of females with epilepsy to experience symptoms of withdrawal from the antiseizure medication (unless it is phenobarbital or a standing dose of benzodiazepines), but the symptoms resolve quickly and there are usually no serious or long-term effects.
The NINDS Epilepsy Therapy Screening Program (ETSP) provides a free compound screening service to identify candidate drugs that treat the epilepsies. The ETSP annually screens hundreds of new chemical agents from academic, industrial, and government participants using a battery of models of potential efficacy and side-effect liability. Results are compared to those obtained with standard marketed antiepileptic drugs. The ETSP has played a role in the identification and development of numerous marketed antiseizure drugs, including felbamate, iramate, lacosamide, and retigabine. Current efforts emphasize unmet medical needs in epilepsy, such as treatments for refractory epilepsies, the development of epilepsy in previously unaffected individuals, and disease progression.
There are additional ways for people with epilepsies and their families can help advance research. Pregnant females who are taking antiseizure drugs can help researchers learn how these drugs affect unborn children by participating in the The North American Antiepileptic Drug (AED) Pregnancy Registry, which is a philanthropic arm of Harvard Medical School and housed at Massachusetts General Hospital. Registry participants are given educational materials on pre-conception planning and perinatal care and are asked to provide information about the health of their children. (This information is kept confidential.)
Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is the use of a drug in amounts or by methods which are harmful to the individual or others. It is a form of substance-related disorder. Differing definitions of drug abuse are used in public health, medical and criminal justice contexts. In some cases, criminal or anti-social behaviour occurs when the person is under the influence of a drug, and long-term personality changes in individuals may also occur. In addition to possible physical, social, and psychological harm, the use of some drugs may also lead to criminal penalties, although these vary widely depending on the local jurisdiction.
Tackling the drug problem among students is an intractable proposition across the world. Union and State governments in India are spending substantial sums of money to keep the students aware of the perils of drug consumption. Lots of campaigns are being regularly conducted by various government departments, like marathons, cycle rallies, pledges, blood donations, and sporting events, apart from drug awareness programs. However, the problem only seems to be increasing every year with increasing intensity. As a result of aggressive campaigning by government departments and social service organisations, students are well informed about the types of commonly abused drugs, the reasons for possible drug abuse, and the impact of such drugs on human health. But, today, it is almost a fashionable trend in many educational institutions, to accept drug dependency among students as very normal!
David is an international soccer player in the World Cup finals. He suffers from chronic pain, caused by his career in football and the wear and tear that results. He wishes to use strong analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs to continue through the competition without being hampered by his pain.